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End-to-end Message Exchange In A Deployable Marine Environment Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

Discussion in 'Underwater Wireless Sensor Network' started by Homaei, Jan 30, 2014.

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    End-to-End Message Exchange in a Deployable Marine Environment Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network
    César Ortega-Corral,1,2 Luis E. Palafox,1 J. Antonio García-Macías,3 Jaime Sánchez-García,4 and Leocundo Aguilar1
    1Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja Californía, Calzada Tecnológico 14418, Mesa de Otay, 22390 Tijuana, BC, Mexico
    2Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación, Universidad Tecnológica de Tijuana Km. 10 Carretera Libre Tijuana-Tecate, Fraccionamiento El Refugio, Quintas Campestre, 22650 Tijuana, BC, Mexico
    3Departamento de Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada–Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, BC, Mexico
    4Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada–Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, BC, Mexico

    Received 21 March 2013; Revised 7 October 2013; Accepted 7 October 2013; Published 27 January 2014

    Academic Editor: Tai-hoon Kim

    Copyright © 2014 César Ortega-Corral et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    We present a pragmatic view of different approaches used to guarantee data delivery in a deployable marine habitat monitoring system, composed of a two-tier dual frequency (2.4 GHz/900 MHz) hierarchical wireless sensor network (WSN). We cover end-to-end application layer aspects. At the lower tier, we preconfigured endpoint (EP) transceivers for automatic data acquisition and wireless transfer using their native Application Program Interface (API) framework. These endpoints communicate with a more powerful intermediate cluster-head (CLH) system. At the upper tier, we deployed a modified low level 8-bit “Lighter” version of the well-known web application protocol called JavaScript Object Notation (JSON, or in our case LJSON) for back and forth CLH to BS validated message exchange. These LJSON messages are converted by the BS to 16-bit JSON and vice versa, for remote Internet interaction. And finally, the BS software establishes Internet Protocol (IP) client socket connections with a remote custom JSON service, in charge of marine habitat sensor data reception, verification, and nonvolatile database storage.

    1. Introduction
    During the last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been at the forefront in many ubiquitous sensor oriented research and application developments. A large amount of WSN publications have appeared [13] due in part to the constantly growing application space (smart homes, assisted living, precision agriculture, habitat monitoring, etc.), pointing out that the most successful WSN endeavors have been application-centric deployments as discussed in [46].

    In most monitoring WSN applications, sensor nodes have fixed locations. Another important issue is distance, which influences the decision of what general architecture is more practical for a WSN [7]. Most data routing protocols can be classified according to the general WSN structure as flat, hierarchical, or position-based [8, 9]. A flat structure is usually applied for dense networks where many wireless nodes are close together. On the other hand, for long range sparse WSN applications a hierarchical structure may be more practical than a mesh network. And the third option is the position based architecture, which can be used either way in short range or long range WSN with power budget requirements and extended GPS (global positioning system) hardware, in order to update the nodes position coordinates. With the implicit restriction that it can only be deployed in “open sky” applications, it can get a “lock” on the relative position of line of sight satellites flying overhead.

    In the application presented in this paper, we chose a hierarchical WSN architecture. This hierarchy establishes two wireless sensor network layers or tiers. Most or all sensor data are forwarded towards the BS located at the top of the upper tier, which provides Internet connections for DBS sensor data storage. This is done using a web application protocol implemented for point-to-point long range communications.

    Author: Mohammad Hossein Homaei
    Supported by: www.wsnlab.org

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